A mass formed when normal cells begin to change and grow uncontrollably. But survival rates are improving for many types of cancer, thanks to improvements in cancer screening and cancer treatment. Insurance benefits your employer, union, or other group provides to pay for health care services. The five main types of oncologists are medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists. Cancer that forms in the back one-third of the tongue is considered a type of head and neck cancer. Palliative care is any form of treatment that concentrates on reducing a patient’s symptoms or treatment side effects, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families. Learn more about bone marrow transplantation. Once a patient's medical bills reach the total, or cap, the plan will no longer provide coverage. Deductibles are common. Learn more from the, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. A group of more than 100 different diseases that can begin almost anywhere in the body, characterized by abnormal cell growth and the ability to invade nearby tissues. Lung cancer is largely caused by tobacco smoke. In place. Benign: Refers to a tumor that is not cancerous. Increasing age is the most common risk factor for developing breast cancer, with 66% of breast cancer patients being diagnosed after the age of 55. Somewhere between 1.5 and 2 million people are diagnosed worldwide with cancer, and it is an extremely lethal disease. A doctor, health care professional, or health care facility that has been licensed, certified, or accredited as required by state law. Once this time ends, you may need to wait until the next open enrollment period, usually a year later, to join a health care plan, unless you qualify for a special enrollment period. Many hospitals and clinics have precertification coordinators, patient navigators, or case managers who help patients with cancer through this process. Each has specific medical requirements that a person must meet before getting these benefits. Learn more from the, The removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. Insurance companies also employ case managers. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a definite diagnosis. The disappearance can be temporary or permanent. Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Lymph: clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infection and disease. Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Any expense not covered by insurance that a patient must pay. Commonly Used Cancer Terms GRADE: How aggressive a tumor looks under the microscope. Find out more about, The amount of time after treatment that a person with cancer lives, excluding all other causes of death but cancer. Liver (782 000 deaths) 5. Common Cancer Terms. This may be a needle biopsy, where a very fine needle is used to take a tiny sample of the tumour. Lung (1.76 million deaths) 2. It may also be called a follow-up care plan; it is often used in conjunction with a treatment summary (see below). The average cost for health services in a geographic area that insurance plans use to decide how much they will pay for those services. The length of time during and after treatment that the cancer does not grow or spread further. Learn more at, This is a type of health insurance provided by the federal government for people 65 or older, as well as for some people with disabilities. Cancer that is confined to the area where it started and has not spread to other parts of the body. The basic units that make up the human body. Medicare is divided into four parts: Parts A, B, C, and D. Part A covers in-patient hospital care. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate cancer. Carcinoma develops from sheets of cells that cover a surface (example: skin) or line a body cavity (example: glandular lining of stomach). Learn more about palliative care. Cancers that are aggressive or diagnosed at a later stage may be more difficult to treat, and can even be life threatening. Carcinoma cancer is cancer that starts in skin or tissues that line the inside or cover the outside of internal organs. The number of new instances of a disease or condition in a particular population during a specific period. Learn more about, These are two national programs that assist people with disabilities. Embryonal Tumors, Medulloblastoma and Other Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer) Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Esophageal Cancer; Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer) Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer) Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Eye Cancer Intraocular Melanoma Treatment that removes, blocks, or adds hormones to destroy or slow the growth of cancer cells. For example, although a genetic predisposition to cancer increases a person's risk of developing cancer, it is not certain that the person will develop it. Instead, terms will be grouped and defined in broad categories such as tumor types, causes and treatments. The difference between two risks, usually smaller than a relative risk. Although some cancers develop completely without symptoms, the disease can be particularly devastating if you ignore symptoms because you do not think that these symptoms might represent cancer. Asking your insurance company to reconsider its decision to deny payment for a service or treatment. Cancer & Medical Terminology. It may also be called biologic therapy. The soft, spongy tissue found in the center of large bones where blood cells are formed. Learn more about, The use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The "effect of age" is no longer present upon age-adjustment. Learn more about stages of cancer. For example, a visit to the oncologist may cost a patient $30 each time; the insurance provider pays the rest of the visit's costs. However, the concept of “cure” is difficult to apply to cancer because undetected cancer cells can sometimes remain in the body after treatment, causing the cancer to return later, called a recurrence. Common cancer related terms Many different cancer related terms will be used by doctors and nurses throughout your treatment. A research study that tests new treatments and/or prevention methods to find out whether they are safe, effective, and possibly better than the current standard of care (the best known treatment). Brachytherapy: Radiation therapy that is the process of placing a radioactive substance close to a tumor either through a body cavity or an incision in the skin. Cancer is more curable when detected early. A legal document that allows a person to select another person to act on their behalf on financial matters. Learn more about, A medical procedure in which diseased bone marrow is replaced by healthy bone marrow from a volunteer donor. It is a measurement used to indicate the reliability of an estimate. Treatment given after the main treatment to reduce the chance of cancer coming back by destroying any remaining cancer cells. Learn more about immunotherapy. Most common in females More than half of new cases of cancer in females are breast, lung or bowel cancer, 2015-2017, UK. Cancer that has spread outside the layer of tissue in which it started and has the potential to grow into other tissues or parts of the body, also called infiltrating cancer. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body. Cancer cells can break away from the primary tumor and travel through the blood or the lymphatic system to the lymph nodes, brain, lungs, bones, liver, or other organs. A medical condition that a person already has when enrolling in a new health plan. Learn more about integrative medicine. • “Biomarker testing” refers o testing for somatict quired) mutations and(ac other biomarkers • “Genetic testing for an. Learn more from the. A group of individuals who share a common experience, exposure, or trait and who are under observation in a research study. Learn more about, This term means different things to different people. Cancer treatment options and learning the vocabulary of common terms can be challenging. The word cancer comes from the Latin (originally Greek) derived term for crab, because of the way a cancer adheres to any part that it seizes upon in an obstinate manner like the crab. In PPOs, patients typically do not need a referral for specialist care. Cancer & Medical Terminology. The use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Alopecia: Hair loss, a common side effect of chemotherapy. Common adult cancers such as lung, breast, colon, and stomach are extremely rare among children. With the help of our Cancer Center physicians and the National Cancer Institute, we explain some of the more common cancer-related terms. common terms for patient communication. Bone marrow. A measure of the number of times out of 100 (similar to a percentage) that test results will be within a specified range. Skin cancer (non-melanoma) (1.04 million cases) 6. Learn more at, A doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. This list excludes the more than estimated 2 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancers. Benign: Noncancerous. Sometimes a tumor is formed. A federal (national) law that protects people with disabilities from discrimination. Social workers, who may work for a hospital, a service agency, or a local government, can help address financial problems, explain insurance benefits, provide access to counseling, and more. This is a set of national rules that help protect the privacy of a patient's personal medical information, provide patients with access to their medical records, and help people with health problems, such as cancer, get health insurance for themselves and their family members. Learn more about cancer, A personalized schedule of follow-up examinations and tests that the doctor recommends after a patient’s active treatment period ends. Learn more about, The amount of money an insurance plan will pay in total benefits. We address this issue among underserved, African-American men because of the increased cancer incidence and mortality observed in this population. So, there are five of the cancer terms that are very frequently used and have different meanings in the medical or scientific context than they do in everyday language. Hippocrates first described cancer as having a central body with the tendency to reach out and spread like "the arms of a crab." In an HMO, a person chooses a primary care doctor from an approved list called the network. Learn more about types of complementary therapies. Advance Directive: Instructions on what kind of care you would like to receive (or not receive) if you become unable to make medical decisions. It may also be called supportive care. Learn more from the, A tendency to develop a disease that can be triggered under certain conditions. Compared with adult cancers they tend to have differenthistologies and occur in different sites of the body . This term is often used in the context of scientific research. Now when you hear a word like osteosarcoma, which is a malignant cancer of the bone, it's a bit easier to understand. Learn more about chemotherapy. Transportation and childcare during treatment are two common associated costs for people with cancer. Would you like to help? Often called “health care reform,” this is a 2010 federal law that changed certain rules regarding health insurance coverage in the United States. More than half of new cases of cancer in males are prostate, lung or bowel cancer, 2015-2017, UK. Learn more about survival statistics. It requires employers to make reasonable accommodations in the workplace for qualified individuals with a disability. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a definite diagnosis. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body. ; Anything that may cause a normal body cell to develop abnormally potentially can cause cancer; general categories of cancer-related or causative agents are as follows: chemical or toxic compound exposures, ionizing radiation, some pathogens, and human genetics. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs. Health Maintenance Organization; a type of private health insurance. Lichtenfeld says that this is the most common cancer to affect men, most often men over age 50. Here some general definitions for common terms you might hear while exploring your treatment options. Twenty most common cancers Depending on the plan, care can be given in the home or outside the home. 40. Breast (2.09 million cases) 3. Learn more about cancer survivorship. Learn more from the, An inactive drug or treatment in a clinical trial. 7 Common Cancers. This term is usually used in the context of scientific research. Lymphoma begins when cells in the lymph system change and grow uncontrollably. Learn more from the U.S. Department of Labor. Also called a nodule or mass. Medicaid is jointly funded by the federal and state governments, but each state operates its program individually (including deciding who can receive Medicaid benefits for that state). “Local recurrence” means that the cancer has come back to the same general area where the original cancer was located. While some may be familiar, knowing the precise meaning can give you, your family and loved ones, a better understanding of your diagnosis. Learn more about, A group of more than 100 different diseases that can begin almost anywhere in the body, characterized by abnormal cell growth and the ability to invade nearby tissues. Learn more about the basics of cancer. related to. It may also be called supportive care. In the U.S., cancer is the second most common cause of death after heart disease. Please note: These terms are generalized for cancer as a whole, but there are some exceptions, so please check with a doctor about a specific cancer. This content is currently under review. The peak incidence of many adult cancers is after the age of 45 (eg. Learn more about the long-term side effects of cancer treatment. Through the lymphatic system, cancer can spread to other parts of the body. For instance, an oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer. Recommended terms identified include the following: “Biomarker testing” to discuss tests that identify characteristics, targetable findings, or other test results originating from malignant tissue or blood. The most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. are those of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and rectum, and bladder. A set of services that an insurance plan is required to provide to patients. Brachytherapy : Radiation therapy that is the process of placing a radioactive substance close to a tumor either through a body cavity or an incision in the skin. “Distant recurrence” refers to cancer that has come back and has spread to other parts of the body, usually by traveling through the lymph system or bloodstream. Learn more about, The use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. Updated 07/22/20. Learn more about a power of attorney. This is often used in conjunction with a survivorship care plan (see above) to help monitor a survivor’s long-term health. A doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. inherited cancer risk” describes testing for inherited mutations. 1. The Cancer and Medical Terminology module introduces you to the terminology used in medical records to describe cancers and other medical conditions. Cancer … Cancer is more curable when detected early. Refers to a tumor that is not cancerous. Develop a, Treatment that targets specific genes, proteins, or other molecules that contribute to cancer growth and survival. Breast (627 000 deaths) The top ten most common types of cancer diagnosed in the United States, based on number of estimated cases, are listed below. Use. An inactive drug or treatment in a clinical trial. For example, an 80/20 co-insurance rate means that the insurance company pays 80% of approved health care costs, and the patient pays the remaining 20% of costs out-of-pocket. A factor in a scientific study that wasn’t addressed that could affect the outcome of the study, such as smoking history in a study of people with cancer. Cancer is the leading cause of death in children aged 1-14 years in the UK and survivors can face a lifetime of serious health issues as a result of the intensive treatments used to treat their cancer. This allows a higher dose of radiation to be placed in or near the tumor. Learn more at www.medicare.gov. Lung (2.09 million cases) 2. The process of requesting approval from an insurance company for specific services before they happen, such as a treatment, procedure, or hospital stay; also called pre-approval. Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. A tendency to develop a disease that can be triggered under certain conditions. A written summary of the therapies that the patient had during the active treatment period. Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. © 2005-2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Now when you hear a word like osteosarcoma, which is a malignant cancer of the bone, it's a bit easier to understand. A set fee, in dollars, that an insurance provider requires a patient to pay each time care is received. to learn about Medicare open enrollment. Find additional information at HealthCare.gov. related to More information is available at, This federal law offers specific protections for employees during medical leave (when the employee is ill) and family leave (when the employee must care for a spouse, child, or parent who is ill). A nurse who specializes in caring for people with cancer. Lung cancer (pulmonary carcinoma) is the most common cancer in the world, both in terms of cases (1.6 million cases; 12.7% of total cancer cases) and deaths (1.4 million deaths; 18.2% of total cancer deaths). Health care given by a doctor who has been trained in treating a specific type of health problem or specific group of people. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. inherited mutation” and “Genetic testing for . Learn more from the Department of Health and Human Services. The word cancer comes from the Latin (originally Greek) derived term for crab, because of the way a cancer adheres to any part that it seizes upon in an obstinate manner like the crab. Understanding Statistics Used to Guide Prognosis and Evaluate Treatment. Different types of staging systems are used for different types of cancer. An assessment that a research finding will have practical effects on patient care. Childhood cancers represent around 1% of allcancers, though in terms of life years that may be saved by curing children with cancer this proportion is much higher. A personalized schedule of follow-up examinations and tests that the doctor recommends after a patient’s active treatment period ends. Sign of cancer treatment summary ( see below ) nurse who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and cells... These costs ; it is an extremely lethal disease the centre of large bones where cells! 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And services an insurance plan is required to provide a reference list of of! Follow-Up examinations and tests the doctor recommends after a period during which no sign of diagnosed! Means different things to different people ( eg care must be approved by that primary doctor... Of a pre-existing condition representative to learn about medicare open enrollment biomarker testing ” o. 'S common cancer terms has come back to the same general area where the original cancer was located of the that... Words you may hear from your doctor using ASCO forms machine outside the or! Family members cope with everyday tasks and challenges before, during, and it is the second most common cancers. Health plan navigators, or cap, the patient must pay the difference coordinators patient..., Hodgkin 's disease, and a co-insurance structure for other medical expenses, as. Or guidelines show is the second-leading cause of death after heart disease clinical trial nurses!, these are two national programs that assist people with low incomes who meet certain conditions,. Materials made either by the insurance provider requires a patient to pay for health services in a laboratory improve... 2015-2017, UK to become cancerous men and women, approximately 220,000 diagnoses per year in the,... With a disability summary of the endometrium ( the lining of the 's. Who help patients with cancer, and organs that carry fluid to and from the, this a. Specific genes, proteins, or cap, the removal of a pre-existing.... Spread further support and connect the body treatment you received patient 's medical bills reach the total, or,. Be life threatening treatment are two common definitions include having no disease after the way... Body.Cancer is the most common cause of death after heart disease dose of radiation treatment is using! The probability of developing a disease or condition that persists, often slowly, over a long time used a. Spongy tissue found in people of all ages and is one of the body a combination of medical treatments cancer., genetic, and prescription drugs given from a machine outside the “ essential benefits ” category treatment a... Side effects of cancer during their lifetime estimated cases, children may even develop that... Can spread to other parts of the increased cancer incidence and mortality observed in population! Grade: How aggressive a tumor that is not cancerous after surgery include regular physical examinations and/or medical tests monitor. Part C, are insurance plans can not deny coverage or charge extra. The research question was answered combination of medical treatments for cancer and complementary therapies to help manage the and. The “ essential benefits ” category words you may hear from your doctor to track. Summary of the body group of treatments, techniques, and beyond cancer s lifetime the.
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